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The explanation in vogue maintains that the migration followed fluvial routes and occurred between and BP AD — We examine archaeological, linguistic, ethnohistorical, genetic, and ecological data seeking similarities between the Maria yoly rodriguez google emigrants and their north-central Venezuelan descendants.
The route first proceeded upstream along rivers of the central llanos and later followed a natural terrestrial geomorphological corridor into the Lake Valencia Basin. We argue that, while future interdisciplinary especially archaeo-linguistic and bioarchaeological research is needed to further assess the results of these analyses, the Orinocan descendants in north-central Venezuela emerge as one of the most dynamic sociopolitical Cariban-speaking entities in all northeastern South America and the insular Caribbean on the eve of the European Conquest.
One of the fundamental problems confronted by archaeology has been whether the similarities observed in material culture found in two different geographical regions are the result of shared ancestry, demic or cultural diffusion, or convergent adaptation to similar selective pressures Fort et al.
Historical linguists and archaeolinguists face a further challenge when trying to synchronize the archaeological evidence and linguistic features of two geographic regions in a historical perspective. Both problems are best approached through interdisciplinary cooperation among the fields of computer science, bioinformatics, anthropology, archaeology, history, genetics, and the life sciences McConvell ; Koch et al.
In this paper, we bring together sources of data from diverse disciplines in order to reconstruct the past sociocultural landscapes in which the similarities observed in the archaeological record between the Middle Orinoco and north-central Venezuela have traditionally been attributed to demic diffusion of indigenous peoples Kidder ; Cruxent and Rouse ; Rouse and Cruxent This migration from the Middle Orinoco to the north has been conventionally associated with the concomitant spread of Cariban languages Zucchi ; Zucchi and Denevan ; Tarble and Zucchi ; Tarble Although some of the causes, timing and direction of this migration have been identified in the maria yoly rodriguez google century, this occurred using an outdated monolithic conception of archaeological cultures that largely conflated biological signatures of human populations with their cultural identities and languages, privileging long-range migrations of indigenous peoples over local developments Osgood and Howard ; Rouse ; Wagner Our discussion of the data drawn from diverse sources focuses on the interrelated processes of culture and language change that might have occurred in concrete sociocultural landscapes of the pre-colonial past.
Since the early twentieth maria yoly rodriguez google, Venezuelan archaeology has been considered pivotal in understanding the movements of indigenous peoples, goods and ideas between the Andean west, the Caribbean north, and the Tropical Lowland south. In order to support this hypothesis, he not only carried out the pioneering reconnaissance of northern and central Venezuela but also examined private windows 10 virtual keyboard and even analyzed petroglyphs and pictographs.
Osgood and Howardthe authors of a preliminary—but the first nationwide—archaeological survey, indicated Venezuela as a region of great archaeological importance in interlacing diverse macroregional cultural influences.
They compared its position to the horizontal bar of a letter H that connects the right vertical bar, representing indigenous migration routes spreading along the eastern part of South America and out through the insular Caribbean, to the left vertical bar representing migrations between Mesoamerica and the Andes via Central America.
The archaeological cultures from the Lake Valencia Basin and the Middle Orinoco that are the focus of this paper have been considered the best examples of influences coming from both the highland and lowland regions Navarette maria yoly rodriguez google, p.
In their seminal chronological outline of the archaeological cultures of Venezuela, Cruxent and Rousevol. Moreover, they rejected the portrayal of Venezuela as an inert backdrop against maria yoly rodriguez google pre-Columbian peoples performed migratory movements following unilinear flows.
Instead, they envisioned multidirectional and multiple lines of migration and diffusion Cruxent and Rousep. They also pointed to the active contribution by Venezuelan cultures to the origin and development of the above-mentioned west—east dichotomies Rouse and Cruxentp.
However, despite such outstanding insights, practitioners of the culture-historical approach, including Cruxent and Rouse, remained convinced that similar ceramic attributes directly reflect shared cultural norms. Meanwhile, non-ceramic remains and features largely lie outside the area of immediate interest Cruxent and Rousevol.
The normative approach to culture imposed a straitjacket hindering novel conceptualizations of intersocietal interactions as well as interrelations between archaeological remains, Amerindian mobility, and historical-comparative linguistics Hofman and Carlin In the late s and early s the onset of Venezuelan social archaeology, based on the principles of historical materialism e. Sanoja and Vargas-Arenas ; Vargas-Arenascreated a singular blend of general Marxist principles with elements of environmental materialism Navarettep.
Even if this approach aimed at linking the indigenous past with the present and invoked internal political and socio-economic developments rather than demic or cultural diffusion as the causes of the archaeologically observed shifts, its early constructs still heavily depended on archaeological evidence compiled by Cruxent and Rouse ; Rouse and Cruxent It is in the above-outlined context of theory and practice in Venezuelan archaeology that the central concern of this paper began to take shape.
His focus was on the macroregional scale, encompassing the Andes as well as the Amazonian and Orinoquian lowlands, in addition to the insular Caribbean Zucchi ; Arvelo and Wagner ; Rouse ; Molina ; Meggers ; Oliver In Venezuela, retaining the main culture-chronological units conceptualized by Cruxent and Rousemaria yoly rodriguez google aim was to understand by means of migration studies the pre-Hispanic cultural interrelations among increasingly smaller archaeologically speaking regional units.
This trend marked the onset of attention to the archaeo-linguistics of migration in the study area. In two of these studies, Zucchipp. Lathrap also maria yoly rodriguez google significato upload e the best areas for human occupation in the lowlands were the seasonally flooded plains along the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers Denevan In the Maria yoly rodriguez google Orinoco region, the socio-cultural growth on riverbanks furthered: These factors—coupled with a probable increase in the frequency and intensity of interactions related to exchange as well as in violent confrontations with competing groups, mainly Arawakan language speakers—could have driven Cariban-speakers from the Middle Orinoco west, east and north Zucchi and Denevan ; Roosevelt ; Zucchi The expansion of the Cariban-speakers identified with Arauquinoid ceramic complexes towards the northeast reached as far as Trinidad Boomertthe Guianas, and Surinam Boomert ; Rostain and Versteeg ; Rostaina ; Versteeg Recently van den Belp.
However, all these theoretical considerations left intact the archaeological evidence that has traditionally been considered proof of Arauquinoid spatial expansion from the Middle Orinoco to north-central Venezuela.
Vast areas adjacent to the banks of the river there are flooded annually during the rainy season. Although these floods make the area hazardous for settlers, they also create environs relatively rich in biomass and resources, especially in the middle maria yoly rodriguez google of the river.
The region of north-central Venezuela, located in northeastern South America, encompasses the modern cities of Valencia, Maracay, and Caracas. This paper utilizes previously published data while also mobilising new evidence drawn from archaeology, ethnohistory, linguistics, genetics, and ecology. Operationalizing malhari bajirao mastani concept, we explore the cultural continuity between the above-mentioned historically known groups and their immediate predecessors, that is, the bearers of the Valencioid and Dabajuroid archaeological cultures, respectively.
Going further, we review the available data provided by archaeology, landscape engineering, genetics, and chronology to test the claim for close relations between the Valencioid culture of north-central Venezuela and the Arauquinoid culture of the Middle Orinoco region.
We propose an alternative route and timing of the northward migration to those that are currently in vogue. Continuing with the direct historical approach, we aver that the compiled data seems to support the previous claim about linguistic continuity among the Arauquinoid migrants, their Valencioid successors, and the linguistic affiliation of Amerindian groups documented in north-central Venezuela in the early sixteenth century.
Finally, we present our conclusions and indicate avenues for future research. These languages were recently grouped into the Venezuelan Branch of Carib languages Gildea Durbin has suggested that proto-Cariban speakers dispersed maria yoly rodriguez google an ancestral homeland in the Guianas, where the highest concentration of Cariban-speaking groups was found. Oliverp. It is maria yoly rodriguez google that, contrary to scholars who supported the hypothesis of the Cariban-speaking origin of the Valencioid culture bearers, Alfredo Jahnpp.
Strong but unspecified external cultural influence reaching the Lake Valencia Basin just before the European Conquest was a motif that reappeared in several later writings on regional archaeology e. Bennettp.
These hypotheses, largely based on intuition, require close attention in future research. From an archaeological perspective, the late pre-Hispanic inhabitants of north-central Venezuela were integrated within the Valencioid Sphere of Interaction as defined by Antczak and Antczak ; see also Guzzo Falci et al. The Valencioid Sphere of Interaction was initially defined on the basis of the spatial dispersion of pottery which presents the stylistic features of the Valencioid series Cruxent and Rouse In chronological terms, the sphere was purportedly operational between BP AD and the advent of the European conquest.
At this time, many cultural changes were occurring throughout the South American Lowlands. In the Guianas, for instance, there was displacement of Koriabo groups and, at the same time, the demise of Arauquinoid raised-field agriculture began. These phenomena maria yoly rodriguez google have been related to some little-known macroregional climatic changes Rostainb. Suggested migratory routes of the Carib-speakers with respect to the geomorphology and the topography of the macro-region. The migration of the factions of the inland Valencioid, the traditional makers and users of an unpainted but richly modelled pottery, and their cohabitation on the coast with the Ocumaroid producers of painted wares, gave birth to the transcultural ceramic assemblage that combined both plastic and painted decorations.
Resulting hybrid wares may be seen as both the material embodiment and, concomitantly, the means of furthering new identities, ideologies, and practices that might have been evolving in these intersocietal, intercultural, and interlingual engagements maria yoly rodriguez google DiPaolo Lorenp.
During the last three centuries before the European Conquest, both the Valencioid and Ocumaroid commenced large-scale exploitation of marine resources on the offshore oceanic islands of the Los Roques Archipelago and brought to the mainland between three and five tons of queen conch meat annually Antczak and Antczak ; Schapira et al. During this period the Valencioid Sphere maria yoly rodriguez google Interaction developed in north-central Venezuela. It was defined by a network of interactions that, operating through mobility and exchange mechanisms, fostered the social, economic, and ideological relations capable of supporting the Los Roques enterprise.
Maria yoly rodriguez google the fate of the Valencioid moundbuilders in the Lake Valencia Basin at the time of the European Conquest remains uncertain.
Moving back to pre-colonial times, the archaeo-linguistic hypotheses trace the origin of ethnohistorically known Arawakan-speaking peoples to the pottery-making horticulturalist groups from the Middle Orinoco area. From this perspective, the Middle Orinoco may be considered the point of departure for the dispersion of both Arawakan- and, later, Cariban-speaking peoples.
The initial centre of dispersion of the Arawakan-speakers was, plausibly, located between the areas maria yoly rodriguez google the Upper Amazon River in Brazil and the Middle Orinoco River in Venezuela Lathrap ; Oliver ; Rouse ; Zucchi ; Zucchi ; for the symbolic construction of indigenous regional landscapes see Ruette Orihuela ; Vall de la Ville ; Zucchi et al. From the Middle Orinoco area, the makers of Saladoid pottery moved down the Orinoco River, established permanent villages on the eastern coast of Venezuela, and from there moved along the coast and farther north toward the Antillean arc.
The Barrancoid pottery makers supposedly followed their route. The archaeological signatures of their presence end on Trinidad, but the stylistic traits of Barrancoid pottery inspired the indigenous potters of the Lesser Antilles farther to the north Boomert However, not all researchers agree that the Barrancoid culture originated in the Middle Orinoco region and that its bearers migrated downriver see Boomert for summary of additional discrepancies with regards to the origin and spatial dispersion of Barrancoid pottery.
Oliverpers. Therefore neither hypothesis can be refuted, since the real conundrum is a still-unsolved problem of radiocarbon dates. At the time of the Barrancoid arrival in north-central Venezuela the area was already occupied by a mosaic of human maria yoly rodriguez google of diverse cultural origin and traditions, including most probably the remnants of Archaic Age populations Antczak et al. The presence of Saladoid pottery in north-central Venezuela and in the Lake Valencia Basin has also been pointed out Cruxent and Rousevol.
North-central Barrancoid pottery is morphologically akin to its Lower Orinoco counterpart, but at the same time shows elements of local continuity as well as simplification of forms and decoration.
According to Rouse and CruxentFig. Some cultural traits attributed to the Arawakan-speaking Saladoid-Barrancoid groups in the Middle and Lower Orinoco, the Lesser Antilles, and the central Amazon—traits such as the circular central plaza Heckenbergerp. In the following sections, we discuss diverse categories of data that may be considered indicative of links between the bearers of Arauquinoid and Valencioid archaeological cultures.
In a similar vein, Castro de Guerra et al. The increasing number of genetic studies in Venezuela, and particularly, the analyses utilizing next-generation sequencing NGS technologies, are welcome. They represent a novel and powerful tool for refining our understanding of whether specific archaeological maria yoly rodriguez google spread across space due to demic or cultural diffusion. However, a sounder understanding of the diachronic configurations of the archaeological record across diverse sites and regions is necessary before genetic and cultural transmission can be temporally synchronized and meaningfully matched Fort et al.
The archaeological data still hides a diversity of unspecified forms of interaction between local and non-local indigenous populations. Caution is also necessary when comparing Venezuelan data with genetic information coming from other parts of the Caribbean Toro-Labrador et al.
Alfred Kidder IIp. Since then, isolated traits maria yoly rodriguez google the ceramic assemblages of Arauquinoid and Valencioid pottery have been compared to demonstrate a cultural relationship between these ceramic traditions.
Below we discuss the form and decoration, temper, and the use of slip in both archaeological assemblages. For Rouse and Cruxentdecorative elements of the Arauquinoid and Valencioid assemblages have in common the coffee-bean eye, dotted eyebrows, and adornos with miniature features.
Tarble and Zucchiin defining the Valloid series, also took note of these shared elements and bobby owsinski e-books to the list dotted hubs mamelones and zoomorphic applications in the form of frogs Arroyop. Andrzej Maria yoly rodriguez google considered that comparative studies of Arauquinoid and Valencioid ceramics should also take into account the forms of vessels and the iconography used in their decoration.
The conclusion that the Los Mangles face is more closely related to Arauquinoid pottery Cruxent and Intel nuc driversvol. Simultaneously, they would have been a cog themselves in the northern coast sphere of interaction Biord All of these are found on the eastern Venezuelan coast.