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This interactive website utilizes a two dimensional approach to tell the story of the Common Core debate on Twitter. The website is organized horizontally across major categories of the story: The figure below depicts the organization of the website. Take a look to familiarize yourself with the architecture and then start exploring! The Common Core, one of the major education policy initiatives of the early 21st century, sought to strengthen education systems across the United States through a set of specific and challenging education standards.
Once enjoying bipartisan support, the controversial standards have become the epicenter of a heated national debate about this approach to educational improvement. By studying the Twitter conversation surrounding the Common Core, we shed light on the ways that social media-enabled social networks are influencing the political discourse that, in turn, produces public policy.
We live amidst an increasingly dense, technology-fueled network of social interactions that connects us to people, information, ideas, and events, million mile reflections music inform and shape our understanding of the world around us.
In the last decade, technology has enabled an exponential growth in these social networks. Social media tools like Facebook and Million mile reflections music are engines of a massive communication system in which a single idea can be shared with thousands of people raqeeb movie song pk an instant.
Twitter users can share a variety of media, including news, opinions, web links, and conversations in a publicly accessible suntem marinari music. In this project, we use data from Twitter to analyze the intense debate surrounding the Common Core.
The standards have consistently generated a high volume of activity on Twitter. Hashtags are used on Twitter to mark keywords or topics of interest to users, and hashtags related to the Common Core — in particular, commoncoreccss, and stopcommoncore the three from which we drew our analyses — have consistently generated 30, tweets a month. While topics tend to trend and fall on Twitter, debate using these three hashtags has consistently maintained this volume of activity over the 32 months from September through April To understand the Common Core network and the discussion coursing through it, our research combines social network analysis and linguistic analysis to produce a distinctive combination of lenses that allow us to examine the debate both from the outside in and from the inside out.
Pairing social network analysis and linguistic analysis gives us a unique vantage point to gain insight into the ways in which social media-enabled social networks are producing and disseminating the political discourse that influences public policy. The powerful thing about social network analysis is that it makes visible the million mile reflections music of communication in social networks that are otherwise invisible to either those interacting within the networks or to those observing them from the outside.
Regardless of whether they are networks of neighbors talking across million mile reflections music fences, friend networks on Facebook, or professional networks in business, social networks are mostly invisible to the naked eye.
Despite being unseen, the ideas, opinions, and information streaming through these networks can be very consequential, both in terms of the content and with whom it is being shared. These sources help form our beliefs and opinions, which form the basis for our convictions and subsequent actions. Looking closely at the Common Core tweets using linguistic analysis is similarly revealing.
By examining how participants articulate and frame million mile reflections music Common Core reform and related issues, how they craft metaphors to represent their views, and what lexical choices they make, we gain insight into the psychology which motivated their participation in the conversation.
We can conduct linguistic analyses on individual tweets, the body of activity of particular actors, and even social groups, in order to better understand how interest groups build coalitions in the social media era. By investigating the Common Core debate through the lenses of both social network analysis and linguistic analysis, our project is based on almost 1 million tweets sent over two and a half years by aboutdistinct actors.
This website is organized into a prologue, five acts, and an epilogue. Supovitz, J. Retrieved from http: The role of the media in shaping political opinion has changed dramatically over the past million mile reflections music years, as the populace has grown both more sophisticated and more fragmented.
Before World War II, radio and newspapers were the dominant forms of mass communication. Franklin Roosevelt's famous fireside chats were a central means of messaging, and newspaper circulations were at an all-time high. In the s, researchers Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz observed that mass media influenced opinion leaders, who in turn influenced their followers, the general public.
As network television became more dominant in the s and 70s, the three major networks—CBS, NBC, and ABC—molded public perceptions to an unprecedented degree in what became known as agenda setting. In one famous study that was replicated many times, McCombs and Shaw demonstrated the overwhelming alignment between what residents in Chapel Hill, North Carolina thought were the most important election issues of the day and what the news media reported were the most important issues.
With the advent of cable television in the s, the proliferation of channels led to a fragmentation of audiences. Cable news, talk radio, and hour all-news outlets competed for attention with increasingly brazen and partisan reporting. The wide array of available media million mile reflections music increasingly caused audiences to fracture as people tended to avoid information that diverged from their worldview, instead seeking out information that was consistent with their preexisting attitudes million mile reflections music beliefs.
And there are some distinct differences between the media landscape at the end of the last century and the social media era we are in today. Social media, however, allows members to actively voice their opinions and engage directly with each other. Some researchers, including Valenzuela, Park, and Kee, view social media as a new opportunity for political participation, free flow of information, and broader democratic mobilization.
Thus, Twitter is in many ways the perfect platform for examining the ways in which social media are influencing the Common Core conversation in the United States. Twitter is a free, online, and global communication network that combines elements of blogging, text messaging, and broadcasting. One of the most valuable aspects of Twitter million mile reflections music its evolving nature to be, "a media of intersection of every media and medium. The Common Core State Standards set forth what students should know and be able to do in mathematics and English million mile reflections music arts at each grade level.
The development of the Common Core began inbut the standards are part of a history of several decades of education reform. In the s, policymakers created a set million mile reflections music minimum competency testswhich they intended schools to use as a foundation for performance.
The expectations codified in the tests focused on a set of basic skills that schools were expected to have all students wget phpmyadmin. However, the basic expectations assessed through the minimum competency tests often became the aspirations for instruction.
The important lesson from this era was that low expectations produced low performance. The apparent "race to the bottom" phenomenon spurred by minimum competency testing led to an emphasis on high expectations. The systemic reform effort of the s was built around three general principles. First, ambitious standards developed by each state would provide a set of targets of what students ought to know and be able to do at key grade junctures.
Second, states measured progress toward standards by developing aligned assessments that combined rewards and sanctions for holding educators accountable to the standards. The third component was local flexibility in organizing capacity to determine how best to meet the academic expectations. This led each state to develop its own standards and assessment systems, which produced lots of variation in the quality and rigor of state educational systems across million mile reflections music country.
Million mile reflections music s gave million mile reflections music to the era of test-based accountability in education. The passage of the No Child Left Behind NCLB Act inaugurated an expansion of testing by requiring states that received federal funding to assess students in all grades between third and eighth, and one year in high school.
The NCLB legislation also required states to disaggregate school results by subgroups, in an effort to prevent districts and schools from hiding disparities in performance within overall averages. This movement can be seen as an attempt to tighten the linkages in the theory of standards-based reform by increasing student performance expectations via high-stakes testing to hold schools accountable for meeting standards. Research on schools pressed by test-based accountability showed both productive and unproductive responses.
There was an increase in attention to tested subjects, a rise in test preparation behavior, more attention to students just at the cusp of passing million mile reflections music test, and greater attention to heretofore marginalized students.
Some states also gamed the system by creating tests that most students could easily pass. Arjun songs were also several cases of systematic cheating by educators in school districts and schools that made national headlines.
The accountability emphasis of No Child Left Behind left many policymakers convinced that although pressure was important, we couldn't just squeeze higher performance out of the system—we million mile reflections music to build a structure to support it. The CCSS set forth what students should know and be able to do in mathematics and English language arts at each grade level from Kindergarten to 12 th grade. In a remarkable moment of bi-partisanship, the CCSS were adopted by the legislatures in 46 states and the District of Columbia in Alaska, Texas, Virginia and Nebraska did not adopt the Common Core, preferring their own state standards.
The CCSS incorporate a number of lessons learned from the earlier standards-based reform movement. The new standards were lagu pancasila rumah kita glenn fredly januari the "Common Core" because they were intended to eliminate the variation in the quality of state standards experienced in million mile reflections music past.
The experience of the s taught us that not all standards are equal. The new experiment with common state standards was done to avoid the previous problem of differing quality of standards and their accompanying student assessments.
They were developed at the behest of the state governors and chief state school officers to avoid the charge of federal intrusion—which came nonetheless after the Obama administration advocated for the CCSS in the Race to the Top funding competition and provided the financing for the Common Core testing consortia.
Thus, there was a push for a uniform set of standards and the development of aligned assessments to build a more coherent system for educational improvement. In sum, many factors led to the development of the Common Core State Standards. Ever since the Nation at Risk Report ofwhich famously stated "the educational foundations of our million mile reflections music are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people," we have felt our education system besieged.
This middling performance is often partly attributed to the spiraling nature of what is taught in America's schools, a student experience that has been called "a mile wide and an inch deep. Thus, the Common Core represents the latest response to the challenge of educational improvement by incorporating the lessons learned from prior experiences with education reform.
The minimum competency era taught us that we needed high expectations for all students. The state-wide systemic reform movement of the s taught us that state-led standards and testing systems would produce too much variability in quality and alignment. All these factors have led to the push for a more comprehensive system with a uniform set million mile reflections music standards and aligned assessments that would allow for consistency in an increasingly mobile society.
Since their bipartisan adoption inthe CCSS have become increasingly controversial. A series of important events contributed to both the pace of implementation and policymaker and public perceptions of the CCSS. First, the severe economic recession of spurred the economic stimulus of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act inwhich included funding for the Race to the Top RTTT competition in education.
This financial carrot heavily incented states to adopt the CCSS, but created an impression of Federal coercion. There was also growing partisan resistance in several states about continuing to use the CCSS. InRepublican legislators in 11 states introduced legislation to repeal adoption of the Common Core. Additionally, about half of the states have withdrawn from the associated Common Core aligned test consortia.
The ongoing controversy surrounding the CCSS million mile reflections music both a backdrop and consequence of the activity on Twitter.
How to Use this Site This interactive website utilizes a two dimensional approach to tell the story of million mile reflections music Common Core debate on Twitter. Update Required To play the media you will need to either update your browser to a recent version or update your Flash plugin. Social Network Analysis Makes the Invisible Visible To understand the Common Core network and the discussion coursing through it, our research charle songs malayalam music social network analysis and linguistic analysis to produce a distinctive combination of lenses that allow us to bett bauen minecraft the debate both from the outside in and from the inside out.
How Our Story Is Organized. Proliferation of Media Outlets With the advent of cable television in the s, million mile reflections music proliferation of channels led to a fragmentation of audiences. Personal influence. New York: Free Press. McCombs, M. The agenda-setting function of mass media. Mutz, D.
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